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The compass is used for the direction seeking purpose but how it shows the exactly right directions anywhere? Reason to this question is its working principle, It consists of a needle which is magnetized and its two ends behaves as a north seeking pole and south seeking pole. When it is aligned to a fixed point where it is free to rotate 360 degree in any direction.
If a magnet is brought near to the compass, The north seeking pole always point in the direction of south side of magnet because unlike poles attract each other. But if there is no magnet is brought in the jurisdiction of Compass then where the compass needle sets it off? Is that any particular direction or random direction?
There is a naturally occurring magnetic field of Earth also and that’s everywhere on the earth but its intensity is very less as compared to the physical magnets that brings closer to the compass but when there is no magnet closer to the compass then the earth magnetic field is experienced by the Compass needle which behaves just like the huge bar magnet and it has a North and the South poles also. The north seeking pole of needle points in the direction of south of natural magnet and hence it is calibrated as South while the opposite side as North but there must also be noted that The North and South poles of Earth magnet are not exactly as the actually North and South of Earth there is little bit difference of angle and that needed to be considered while calibration.
To understand this and much more watch the episode 7 of season-4 of introduction to electronics
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